В Modality (device)В ParameterВ AdvantagesВ DisadvantagesВ 
Regional stiffnessВ DopplerВ cfPWVaВ 
  • Inexpensive, portable

  • Can assess other cardiac and arterial features, e.g. LV hypertrophy, strain

  • Does not require a specific device

  • Faster than applanation tonometry

  • Identification of anatomical landmarks aids repeatability of measurement position

  • Can detect occlusive/atherosclerotic lesions that may affect PWV

В 
  • Operator-dependent skill

  • Sites of measurement limited by acoustic window

  • Lacks versatility for anatomical variations

  • Method of distance measurement overestimates distance

  • Calculation of cfPWV includes iliac and femoral arteries and excludes ascending aorta

In addition:
  • Transit time is determined through visual assessment using digital calipers, limited by temporal resolution

В 
Mechano- transducer (Complior)В cfPWVВ 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Automated device

  • Simultaneous measurements

В 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Variations in transit time algorithms used

  • Underestimates PWV compared with applanation tonometry

  • Cannot provide local wall assessment, where aortic condition may vary

В 
Applanation tonometry (SpyghmoCor)В cfPWVВ 
  • Inexpensive, portable

В 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Two consecutive recordings needed, heart rate variability may cause confounding

  • Local wall assessment not possible

В 
Local stiffnessВ CMRВ aPWV and ADВ 
  • Local and regional assessment of aorta possible

  • Relatively operator independent

  • Full visualization of the entire vessel

  • Imaging planes can be precisely placed with good repeatability

  • Greater spatial and temporal resolution (especially 3Tesla CMR) to study the temporal shift over smaller distances

  • Measurement not affected by anatomical variations, peripheral vascular disease or problems with using probes to detect waveforms

  • Other aspects of cardiac and arterial function can be assessed, e.g. strain and deformation

В 
  • Focal measurement may be prone to sampling error

  • Image analysis can be time-consuming and user dependent

  • Expensive

  • Longer examination time than other methods

  • Not possible with patients with metal implants, or with claustrophobia

  • PP is usually determined non-invasively and peripherally as it is more feasible than invasive measurement

В 

Region – IAVCEI name

Region – Name in this paper

Countries contained within region

Mediterranean and West Asia

Mediterranean

Italy

Greece

Turkey

Africa and Red Sea

Africa and Red Sea

Cameroon Democratic Republic of Congo

Ethiopia

Red Sea (off-shore Yemen)

Tanzania

Middle East and Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

Comoros

Reunion

New Zealand to Fiji

New Zealand to Fiji

New Zealand

Tonga

Melanesia and Australia

Melanesia

Papua New Guinea

Solomon Islands

Vanuatu

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Philippines and South East Asia

Philippines and SE China

SE China

Philippines

Japan, Taiwan, Marianas

Japan

Japan

Kuril Islands + Kamchatka and Mainland Asia

Kuril Islands and Kamchatka

Kuril Islands

Kamchatka

Alaska + Canada and Western USA

North America

Aleutian Islands

Alaska

Canada

USA (excluding Hawaii)

Hawaii and Pacific Ocean

Hawaii

Hawaii

Mexico and Central America

Mexico and Central America

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

MГ©xico

Nicaragua

South America

South America

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

PerГє

West Indies

West Indies

Martinique

Montserrat

St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Iceland and Arctic Ocean

Iceland

Iceland

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Azores (Portugal)

Canary Islands (Spain)

Cape Verde

To Home Page
В Modality (device)В ParameterВ AdvantagesВ DisadvantagesВ 
Regional stiffnessВ DopplerВ cfPWVaВ 
  • Inexpensive, portable

  • Can assess other cardiac and arterial features, e.g. LV hypertrophy, strain

  • Does not require a specific device

  • Faster than applanation tonometry

  • Identification of anatomical landmarks aids repeatability of measurement position

  • Can detect occlusive/atherosclerotic lesions that may affect PWV

В 
  • Operator-dependent skill

  • Sites of measurement limited by acoustic window

  • Lacks versatility for anatomical variations

  • Method of distance measurement overestimates distance

  • Calculation of cfPWV includes iliac and femoral arteries and excludes ascending aorta

In addition:
  • Transit time is determined through visual assessment using digital calipers, limited by temporal resolution

В 
Mechano- transducer (Complior)В cfPWVВ 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Automated device

  • Simultaneous measurements

В 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Variations in transit time algorithms used

  • Underestimates PWV compared with applanation tonometry

  • Cannot provide local wall assessment, where aortic condition may vary

В 
Applanation tonometry (SpyghmoCor)В cfPWVВ 
  • Inexpensive, portable

В 
  • Similar to Doppler

In addition:
  • Two consecutive recordings needed, heart rate variability may cause confounding

  • Local wall assessment not possible

В 
Local stiffnessВ CMRВ aPWV and ADВ 
  • Local and regional assessment of aorta possible

  • Relatively operator independent

  • Full visualization of the entire vessel

  • Imaging planes can be precisely placed with good repeatability

  • Greater spatial and temporal resolution (especially 3Tesla CMR) to study the temporal shift over smaller distances

  • Measurement not affected by anatomical variations, peripheral vascular disease or problems with using probes to detect waveforms

  • Other aspects of cardiac and arterial function can be assessed, e.g. strain and deformation

В 
  • Focal measurement may be prone to sampling error

  • Image analysis can be time-consuming and user dependent

  • Expensive

  • Longer examination time than other methods

  • Not possible with patients with metal implants, or with claustrophobia

  • PP is usually determined non-invasively and peripherally as it is more feasible than invasive measurement

В 
4

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